Educational resources for practitioners, students and educators

The information on these pages is provided in good faith and should be treated as such. If you make use of the information, please acknowledge its source.

The International Society for Electrophysical Agents in Physical Therapy (ISEAPT) is a formal subgroup of the World Congress Physical Therapy (WCPT) and is the leading International organisation concerned primarily with Electro Physical Agents


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The Electro Physical Agents and Diagnostic Ultrasound (EPADU) group is a Professional Networks of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy based in the UK.


These pages are offered for those who wish to download some of the appropriate information as .pdf files rather than standard web pages. The information contained in the files is essentially the same as on the web pages, though it may provide a better quality for printing.

You are welcome to download and use the information, but please respect the origin of the material and acknowledge its source if you use it elsewhere - I am constantly surprised where I see some of my material!!! I have redone several of the handouts with a watermark in a subtle (not!!) attempt to reduce the unacknowledged 'cut and paste' phenomenon. I am sorry if you find it tiresome or a distraction. If you really want/need a copy without the watermark, please let me know.

The files are provided on the same basis as the rest of the information i.e. 'as is'. They are not claimed to be a replacement for electrotherapy texts or research papers, but may provide some useful additional information or explanations.

In addition to the standard information downloads, there is a section which offers sections from my PhD for anybody who might be daft enough to want to read it. Be warned - it is big - and hence is divided into several chapters. You might find it advisable to download the contents / index file first and see what you really want, before clogging up the network!

General Concepts and Issues
Key Concepts with Electrophysical Modalities/Agents UPDATED 2021
General Concepts in Electrical Stimulation 2014
Contraindications Grid 2013
Contraindications Issues Specific to Pregnancy and Contraindications (careful - 1.5Mb) 2015
EPA Contraindications in Pregnancy Grid 2015
EPA Contraindications in Malignancy Grid 2015
Electrophysical Framework map 2017
Electrophysical Framework map Explanatory Notes 2017
Combination Therapy 2011
High Voltage Pulsed Current (HVPC) 2012
Interferential Therapy UPDATED 2021
Iontophoresis 2014
Microcurrent Therapy Reference Lis 2011
NMES (Muscle Stimulation) 2015
Pulsed Shortwave Therapy UPDATED 2021
Pulsed (and Static) Magnetic Therapy 2014
Russian Current and Burst Mode Medium Frequency (BMAC) 2014
Shockwave Therapy 2015
Shockwave Therapy - Key References - 2014 Update 2014
Selected References TENS in Cancer Care / Oncology 2015

TENS in Pregnancy Guidelines

Updated 2012 version - also available HERE

Ultrasound (General) UPDATED 2021
Ultrasound Dose Calculation Handout 2017
Ultrasound for Apomorphine Nodules 2008
Ultrasound and Fracture Healing References 2009
Ultrasound Dose Chart 2015
Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) 2014
Tissue Repair
Tissue Repair 2016
Effects of NSAID's on Tissue Repair  
Effects of NSAID's on Tissue Repair – 2003 - 2006 References  
Modality References (pre 2005) pre 2005
2005 Compiled Reference List 2005
2006 Compiled Reference List 2006

Electrotherapy News


Volume 1 Issue 1 June 2005 Volume 2 Issue 1 April 2006
Volume 1 Issue 2 December 2005 Volume 2 Issue 2 July 2006
Volume 2 Issue 3 September 2006 Volume 2 Issue 4 Jan 2007
Volume 3 Issue 1 April 2007 Volume 3 Issue 2 July 2007
Volume 3 Issue 3 November 2007 Volume 3 Issue 4 Feb/March 2008
Volume 4 Issue 1 May 2008 Volume 4 Issue 2 October 2008
Volume 4 Issue 3 February 2009 Volume 4 Issue 4 July 2009
Volume 5 Issue 1 January 2010  

Selected Presentations

IFSHT (Hand Therapy) June 2004 The Role of Ultrasound in Hand Injuries
Physio First – Kneed to Know
April 2007

Soft Tissue Healing and the Knee Joint
ACPOCP Presentations – May 2007 – Belfast
NB: Each of these files is about 400k – be warned before you start to download!
(a) Cancer Contraindications
(b) TENS and Cancer Pain
WCPT Vancouver 2007 Modality and Dose Dependency in Electrotherapy – Abstract and Slides
ISEPA February 2009 Las Vegas
Evidence for the Molecular, Cellular and Physiological Effects of Microstreaming and Cavitation at MHz and KHz Ultrasound Frequencies
WCPT Amsterdam, 2011
An Extended Model of Physical Therapy Modes of Action

WCPT 2015 Singapore
Dose dependency with Electro Physical Agents: Both the Arndt Schulz Law and the Goldilocks Principle provide an explanatory model

Watson, T. and Goh, A-C; Physiotherapy 101: e1615-e1616


POGP Conference, Sept 2015, Harrogate

Electrotherapy in  2014: Have we moved on are are we going back?


IFOMPT 2016, Glasgow

Expanding our Understanding of the Inflammatory Process and its Role in Pain & Tissue Healing




PhD - The Bioelectric Correlates of Musculoskeletal Injury and Repair Biomedical Engineering, University of Surrey 1995

Contents Contents 70k
Abstract Abstract 30k
Chapter 1 Introduction 111k
Chapter 2 Literature Review 295k

If you are interested in any of the other chapters / section (see contents page), then by all means contact me and I will very happily share with youI have taken off the other sections of the PhD, partly because they were taking up a lot of space and also because I have seen various parts of it appearing in 'other publications' without acknowledgement or permission. I am happy to share information, but not to write other peoples work for them.




A wide range of Electrotherapy Courses are delivered throughout the UK, Europe and Worldwide with varying content, aims and duration.



Current books on Electrotherapy with brief descriptions

FAQs: Prof. Tim Watson

FAQs: Prof. Tim Watson

Some common answers to the most frequently asked questions on Electrotherapy, particularly in the area of Contraindications.