Educational resources for practitioners, students and educators

The information on these pages is provided in good faith and should be treated as such. If you make use of the information, please acknowledge its source.

The International Society for Electrophysical Agents in Physical Therapy (ISEAPT) is a formal subgroup of the World Congress Physical Therapy (WCPT) and is the leading International organisation concerned primarily with Electro Physical Agents


  • iseapt on twitter
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The Electro Physical Agents and Diagnostic Ultrasound (EPADU) group is a Professional Networks of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy based in the UK.

Electrotherapy today

  • Electrophysical Forum

  • Electrotherapy

  • Interferential Therapy

  • Electrophysical Forum

  • Electrotherapy

  • Electrotherapy

  • Electrophysical Forum

  • Pulsed Shortwave Therapy

  • Ultrasound Therapy

  • Electrophysical Forum

  • Ultrasound Therapy

  • Laser Therapy

  • Electrophysical Forum

  • Interferential Therapy

  • Laser Therapy

  • Electrophysical Forum

  • Pulsed Shortwave Therapy

  • TENS Stimulation

  • Electrotherapy Modalities

  • Free Twitter-based research update service

  • Modalities, References, News & Presentations

Electrotherapy on the Web provides current, non commercial information on various aspects of Electrotherapy / Electroiphysical Agents. It is not presented as a replacement for current texts but attempts to provide an independent view of the current state of the art. The range of pages and topics continues to expand, and some of the long standing pages get updated whenever I can. There are still some new pages to write and new developments to add all the time.

Professor Tim Watson

Professor of Physiotherapy

School of Health & Social Work

University of Hertfordshire, UK

Visiting Professor of Physiotherapy

College of Social Science

University of Lincoln

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Multiple attempts have been made to hijack this web site. I have NO IDEA (in my innocence) why that would be smart - it sells nothing and no income is generated from it. It is free, it is open access and simple attempts to provide information to those who are interested in things related to Electrotherapy and Electrophysical Modalities. If it goes 'offline' at any point, then they will have won. In the meantime I will try my best to keeep it the way it has been since 1991 - informative and free. Fingers crossed

DOWNLOAD PAGE - some updates

I have updates (2021) some of the most frequently accessed modality downloads : Ultrasound : TENS : Interferential : PUlsed Shortwave and the Key Concepts. Check the DOWNLOAD page to access - the new files are highlighted

COVID-19 Research involving Electrophysical Modalities

There are a range of papers covering this topic emerging in the published literature. I have set up a page which identifies those I have found, provides the reference and a link to the paper for those who might be interested COVID Page


Electrophysical Agents Evidence Based Practice 2020

The NEW (13th) edition of the Electrophysical Agents: Evidence Based Practice textbook (was previously Electrotherapy: Evidence Based Practice) is now out (April 2020)

Many new chapters and all previous material rewriten and updated (432 pages; 22 chapters)

I am joined by Ethne Nussbaum (Toronto, Canada) as co-editor

ISBN : 9780702051517

You can't buy from me, but the link to the Elsevier web page is HERE and I am sure that your favourite bookseller will be able to oblige.

I hope that you enjoy


A. Introduction to Scientific Concepts:

1. Introduction, General Concepts and Clinical Decision Making [Watson + Nussbaum]

B. Biophysical and Physiological Constructs:

2. Physical Principles [ter Haar]

3. Physiological Principles; [Neurobiology of Pain + Analgesia [Sluka]: Soft Tissue Healing + Repair [Watson]]

4. Principles of Electrical Stimulation [Selkowitz]

C. Thermal & Microthermal Modalities:

5. Biophysical Effects of Heating & Cooling [Watson]

6. Superficial Heating [Kumaran]

7. Pulsed & Continuous Shortwave & Radiofrequency Therapies [Al-Mandeel & Watson]

8. Cryotherapy [Bleakley]

D. Non Thermal/Microthermal and Light Energies:

9. Ultrasound [Watson]

10. Laser / Photobiomodulation [Baxter & Nussbaum]

11. Ultra Violet Therapy [Nussbaum]

12. Magnetic and Pulsed Magnetic (PEMF) Therapies [Ronzio]

13. Shockwave [Eaton & Watson]

14. Vibration [Pang & Lam]

E. Electrical Stimulation:

15. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) [Johnson]

16. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) [Anthony]

17. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) [Durham & Taylor]

18. Alternating Currents: Interferential Therapy, Russian Stimulation and Burst Modulated Loew Frequency Stimulation [Fuentes]

19. Electrical Stimulation for Wounds [Kloth, Polak & Watson]

F. Diagnostic and Imaging:

20. Electrodiagnosis [Lescallette]

21. Ultrasound Imaging [Leddy & Maybury]

G. Safe Practice:

22. Electrophysical Agents: General Guidelines, Contraindications & Precautions [Watson & Nussbaum]



The Electrophysical Forum has been LIVE since Nov 2016

It provides a place for discussion, exchange of ideas and a community of people who can assist with your questions relating to the use of electrophysical modalities

There is an panel of experts from around the world who have volunteered to assist in answering queries - so why not pay a visit and make the most of a resource which is free and open access??

Electrophysical Framework

A new page has been provided with links to the current version of the Electrophysical Framework - a 'map' the links all electrophysical agents/modalities/interventions into a single integrated structure. The Framework page can be accessed HERE

The Website

The web site appears to be doing what it was supposed to. Looking at the 2017 use stats, there has been an increase of users with almost 350,000 people logging in during the year (almost 20% up on previous) with 30,000 active users a month. In the last year I have had visits from users in 215 countries/territories with the USA, UK, India, Canada and Australia making up the top 5. One other significant change is that almost 50% of users now access the site from their mobile/cell phone or tablet rather than a laptop or desktop computer.

Twitter Service

I have been posting a Twitter feed with 2 new research papers, mainly relating to Electrophysical Modalitied (some on Tissue Repair). I try to put 1 x original research and 1 x review each day. Links to the paper in the relevant journal. Almost 2000 paper alerts to date and around 80,000 people a month having a look. . . . . . . and they say there is NO EVIDENCE for electrophysical interventions????? Follow the feed here : ElectroTim Twitter feed or of course, the latest ones are on the front page of this website @ElectroTim


For those of you who have experienced difficulty in finding it, the MANUFACTURERS lists are found from the top menu under the LINKS tab.

FAQ's - Frequently Asked Questions…

The FAQ page covers some of the queries that I get through week on week and are largely related to contraindications and associated issues. At the present time I have info on Electrotherapy in… Pregnancy, Children, Cancer, Metal in the Tissues, Pacemakers, Haemophilia, Diabetes and Anti-Coagulants. There is more to come, but this combination covers the majority of my routine contraindication queries. FAQ Page


The information on these pages is provided in good faith and should be treated as such. If you make use of the information, please acknowledge its source - I am constantly amazed to see where this information appears without reference - I have no problem if you want to use it - that is what it is here for - but please do the decent thing and acknowledge the source.




A wide range of Electrotherapy Courses are delivered throughout the UK, Europe and Worldwide with varying content, aims and duration.



Current books on Electrotherapy with brief descriptions

FAQs: Prof. Tim Watson

FAQs: Prof. Tim Watson

Some common answers to the most frequently asked questions on Electrotherapy, particularly in the area of Contraindications.