Educational resources for practitioners, students and educators
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The information on these pages is provided in good faith and should be treated as such. If you make use of the information, please acknowledge its source.

The International Society for Electrophysical Agents in Physical Therapy (ISEAPT) is a formal subgroup of the World Congress Physical Therapy (WCPT) and is the leading International organisation concerned primarily with Electro Physical Agents

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The Electro Physical Agents and Diagnostic Ultrasound (EPADU) group is a Professional Networks of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy based in the UK.

Publications


I have added LINKS to all journals and books where this is possible - should take you to the journal page or some directly relevant sebsite. Many of the papers are available (for free) as pdf downloads through Google Scholar so worth putting the title of the paper into that search engine and see what it comes up with.

Bricknell, R. and T. Watson (1995). "The thermal effects of pulsed shortwave therapy." Br J Therapy & Rehabilitation 2(8): 430-434 No link available

Watson, T. (1994). Electrical Stimulation of Wound Healing. Clayton's Electrotherapy 10th Edition. S. Bazin &. S. Kitchen (Eds),  London, WB Saunders. Updated 2 x since this publication, see 2008 link

Watson, T. (1995). Bioelectric Correlates of Musculoskeletal Injury & Repair. PhD Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering. University of Surrey. LINK

Watson, T. (1996). "Electrical Stimulation for Wound Healing." Physical Therapy Reviews 1: 89-103 LINK

Watson, T. (1996). "Electrotherapy research developments and their relevance to womens health." J Assoc Chartered Physiotherapists in Womens Health 78: 7-12 No Link available for this publication

Watson, T. (2000) "Elektrotherapie" in Angewandte Physiologie Vol 3 : Therapie, Training, Tests. Ed Frans van den Berg. Thieme, Stuttgart

Watson, T. (2000). "The role of electrotherapy in contemporary physiotherapy practice." Man Ther 5(3): 132-41 LINK

Watson, T. (2002). "Electrical Stimulation for Wound Healing : A Review of Current Knowledge" In : Electrotherapy - Evidence Based Practice Ed : S Kitchen Pub : Churchill Livingstone Newer Edition 2008

Watson, T. (2002). "Current Concepts in Electrotherapy" Haemophilia 8;413-418 LINK

Watson, T. (2002). "Ultrasound Dose Calculations" In Touch  101;14-17 No Link Available

Watson, T, (2003) "Soft Tissue Healing" In Touch 104:2-9 No LInk Available

Veenman, P. and T. Watson (2005). "A physiotherapy perspective on pain management." UK Vet 10(8): 87-91 No Link BUT see Veenman and Watson 2008 below - same paper)

Watson, T. (2005). "Electrotherapy research: In Context." In Touch Winter 2005(113): 20-26.No Link Available

Watson, T. (2006) Tissue Repair : The Current State of the Art. SportEx Medicine 28;8-12 No Link Available

Meakins, A and T Watson (2006) "Longwave ultrasound and conductive heating increase functional ankle mobility in asymptomatic subjects" Physical Therapy in Sport 7; 74-80 LINK

Moulson, A. and Watson, T. (2006) A preliminary investigation into the relationship between cervical snags and sympathetic nervous system activity in the upper limbs of an asymptomatic population. Manual Therapy 11;214-224 LINK

Watson, T. (2006). Electrotherapy and Tissue Repair. SportEx Medicine. 29;7-13 (July 2006) No Link Available

Al Mandil, M. and T. Watson (2006). "An Evaluative Audit of Patient Records in Electrotherapy with Specific Reference to Pulsed Short Wave Therapy (PSWT)." International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation 13(9): 414-419 LINK

Poltawski, L. and T. Watson (2007). "Relative transmissivity of ultrasound coupling agents commonly used by therapists in the UK." Ultrasound Med Biol 33(1): 120-8 LINK

Poltawski, L. and T. Watson (2007). "Transmission of therapeutic ultrasound by wound dressings." Wounds 19(1): 1-12 LINK

Beeton, K. Neal, D. Watson, T. Lee, C. (2007) : Parents of children with haemophilia - a transforming experience. Haemophilia. 13(5);570-579 LINK

Alderson, L. Watson, T. Main, E. (2007) Assessment of dynamic walking balance in children with acquired brain injury. Physical Therapy Reviews 12;3-20 LINK

Veenman, P. and T. Watson (2008). "A physiotherapy perspective on pain management." Veterinary Nursing Journal 23(4): 29-35 LINK

Watson, T. (2008) (Editor) Electrotherapy : Evidence Based Practice Elsevier LINK

Watson, T. (2008) Electrotherapy IN : Tidy's Physiotherapy. Edited : S Porter. Pub : Elsevier (see 2013 link below for newer edition)

Watson, T. (2008) Ultrasound in Contemporary Physiotherapy Practice Ultrasonics 48: 321-329 LINK

Poltawski, L, Watson, T. Byrne, G. (2008) Physiotherapists' perceptions of problematic musculoskeletal soft tissue disorders International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation 15(10); 437-444 LINK

Poltawski, L., Edwards, H., Todd, A., Watson, T., Lees, A. & James, C. (2008) Cutaneous side effects of infused apomorphine: The patient and care experience. Brit J Neuroscience Nursing 4(12); 576-580 LINK

Poltawski, L., Edwards, H., Todd, A., Watson, T., Lees, A. & James, C. (2008) Ultrasound treatment of cutaneous side-effects of infused apomorphine: a randomised controlled pilot study. Mov Disord 24; 115-118 LINK

Poltawski, L. and Watson, T. (2009) Bioelectricity and microcurrent therapy for tissue healing - a narrative review. Physical Therapy Reviews 14(2);104-114 LINK

Watson, T. (Editor) (2009). Electroterapia : Practica basada en la evidencia. Elsevier. (Spanish translation of Electrotherapy : Evidence Based Practice. (12th Edition) LINK

Roberts, S.E., Stern, M., Schreuder, F.M., Watson, T. (2009) The use of pursed lips breathing in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review of the evidence. Physical Therapy Reviews 14(4);240-246 LINK

Watson, T. (2010) Electrotherapy. Chapter 5 in : The Student's Companion to Physiotherapy: A Survival Guide. N. Southorn (Editor). Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. LINK

Poltawski, L. Jayaram, J. Watson, T. (2010) Measurement Issues in the Sonographic Assessment of Tennis Elbow Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 38(4) 196-204 (May 2010) LINK

Al-Mandeel, M.M. and Watson, T. (2010) The thermal and nonthermal effects of high and low doses of pulsed short wave therapy (PSWT). Physiotherapy Research International. 15(4) 199-211 LINK

Watson, T. (2010). Narrative Review : Key concepts with electrophysical agents Physical Therapy Reviews 15(4): 351-359 LINK

Sutton, A, and Watson, T. (2011) Electrophysical Agents in Physiotherapy Ch 93 IN : Diagnosis and Management of Lameness in the Horse Ed : MW Ross and SJ Dyson Pub : Elsevier / Saunders (2nd Edition) ISBN : 978-1-4160-6069-7 LINK

Watson, T. (2011) An Extended Model of Physical Therapy Modes of Action WCPT, Amsterdam, June 2011. WCPT 2011: Online Publication Reference : A-210-0032-02387 LINK

Poltawski, L. and T. Watson (2011). USING SONOGRAPHY FOR THE EVALUATION OF TENDON PATHOLOGY IN TENNIS ELBOW: RELIABILITY OF ASSESSMENT SCALES. WCPT, Amsterdam, June 2011. WCPT 2011: Online Publication Reference : LINK

Poltawski, L. and T. Watson (2011). MICROCURRENT THERAPY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC TENNIS ELBOW: AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION. WCPT, Amsterdam, June 2011. WCPT 2011: Online Publication Reference :LINK

Poltawski, L. and Watson, T. (2011) Measuring clinically important change with the Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Hand Therapy 16; 52-57 LINK

Poltawski, L. Johnson, M. Watson, T. (2011) Microcurrent Therapy in the Management of Chronic Tennis Elbow: Pilot Studies to Optimise Parameters Physiotherapy Research International 17(3)157-166: DOI: 10.1002/pri 526 LINK

Johnstone, J. A., P. A. Ford, Hughes, G. Watson, T. Garrett, A.T. (2012). BIOHARNESSTM MULTIVARIABLE MONITORING DEVICE: PART. I: VALIDITY Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 11: 400-408 LINK

Johnstone, J. A., P. A. Ford, Hughes, G. Watson, T. Garrett, A.T. (2012). BIOHARNESSTM MULTIVARIABLE MONITORING DEVICE: PART. II: RELIABILITY Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 11: 409-417 LINK

Johnstone, J. A., P. A. Ford, Hughes, G. Watson, T. Mitchell, A.C.S. Garrett, A.T. (2012). FIELD BASED RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE BIOHARNESSTM MULTIVARIABLE MONITORING DEVICE. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 11: 643-652 LINK

Poltawski, L. Ali, S. Jayaram, V. Watson, T. (2012) Reliability of sonographic assessment of tendinopathy in tennis elbow Skeletal Radiology 41(1); 83-89 LINK

Roberts, S., F. Schreuder, T. Watson, M. Stern.. (2012). "P101 The long-term experience of COPD patients taught PLB: a mixed methodological study." Thorax 67(Suppl 2): A107-A107 LINK

Gautrey, C. N., T. Watson, et al. (2013) The Effect of Isokinetic Testing Speed on the Reliability of Muscle Fatigue Indicators During a Hip Abductor-Adductor Fatigue Protocol Int J Sports Med 10.1055/s-0032-1321801. Print :  34; 646-653 LINK

Gautrey, C. N., T. Watson, et al. (2013) The Effect of Velocity on Load Range during Isokinetic Hip Abduction and Adduction Exercise Int J Sports Med 10.1055/s-0032-1327662. Print : 34; 623-630 LINK

Watson, T. (2013) Electrotherapy (Chapter 19) in Porter, S. Tidy's Physiotherapy Churchill Livingstone / Elsevier 15th Edition
ISBN : 978 070 204 3444 LINK

Levine, D. and T. Watson (2014). Therapeutic Ultrasound. Chapter 19 in : Canine Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy. D. L. Mills and D. Levine. Philadelphia, Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN : 978-1-4377-0309-2

Johnstone, J. A., A. C. Mitchell, G. Hughes, T. Watson, P. A. Ford and A. T. Garrett (2014). The athletic profile of fast bowling in cricket: a review. J Strength Cond Res 28(5): 1465-1473 LINK

Gautrey, C., T. Watson and A. Mitchell (2014). Centre of pressure excursions in healthy and functionally unstable participants following a single leg drop jump landing; analysing a subconscious time period. Br J Sports Med 48(7): 597-598 LINK

Gautrey, C., T. Watson and A. Mitchell (2014). The effect of localised and globalised fatigue on centre of pressure excursions in healthy and functionally unstable participants following a single leg drop jump landing; analysing a subconscious time period. Br J Sports Med 48(7): 598-599 LINK

Gautrey, C., T. Watson and A. Mitchell (2014). The effect of localised and globalised fatigue on muscle latency in healthy and functionally unstable participants following a simulated ankle sprain. Br J Sports Med 48(7): 599 LINK

Gautrey, C., T. Watson and A. Mitchell (2014). Muscle latencies in healthy and functionally unstable participants following a simulated ankle sprain. Br J Sports Med 48(7): 598 LINK

Gautrey, C., T. Watson and A. Mitchell (2014). Test-retest reliability of three setup positions during isokinetic ankle inversion-eversion exercise. Br J Sports Med 48(7): 598 LINK 

Bennett, A., T. Watson and J. Simmonds (2014). "The Efficacy Of The Use Of Manual Therapy In The Management Of Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review." British Journal of Sports Medicine 48(Suppl 2): A11-A12 LINK

Watson, T. (2014). Crest of a wave: Effectiveness of therapeutic ultrasound in musculoskeletal injury. International Therapist 110: 18-20 LINK

Watson, T. (2015). "Electro physical agents and tissue repair: can we really make a difference?" In Touch 151(Summer 2015): 8-13. NO LINK  AVAILABLE

Bennett, A., T. Watson and J. Simmonds (2015). "The efficacy of the use of manual therapy in the management of tendinopathy: a systematic review." Physiotherapy 101: e1614-e1615. LINK

Kumaran, B. and T. Watson (2015). "Capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency (CRMRF) therapy at 448kHz: localized application significantly enhances and sustains skin physiological responses." Physiotherapy 101: e798. LINK

Simmonds, J., N. Ninis, J. Chase, N. Meadows, D. Rawat and T. Watson (2015). "Interferential for slow transit constipation in children with Ehlers Danlos Syndrome–Hypermobility Type: a novel service development." Physiotherapy 101: e1398-e1399. LINK

Watson, T. and A.-C. Goh (2015). "Dose dependency with electro physical agents: both the Arndt Schulz law and the Goldilocks principle provide an explanatory model." Physiotherapy 101: e1615-e1616 WCPT 2015 (Singapore) Poster LINK or PDF copy

Kumaran, B. and T. Watson (2015). "Radiofrequency-based treatment in therapy-related clinical practice – a narrative review. Part I: acute conditions." Physical Therapy Reviews 20(4): 241-25 LINK

Kumaran, B., A. Herbland and T. Watson (2015). Capacitive Resistive Monopolar Radiofrequency (CRMRF) therapy at 448 KHz: the effects on deep blood flow and elasticity of tissues PhysiotherapyUK 2015, Liverpool, Physiotherapy 101:e798 LINK

Kumaran, B. and T. Watson (2015). "Thermal build-up, decay and retention responses to local therapeutic application of 448 kHz capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency: A prospective randomised crossover study in healthy adults." Int J Hyperthermia: 1-13 LINK

Kumaran, B. and T. Watson (2016). "Radiofrequency-based treatment in therapy-related clinical practice – a narrative review. Part II: chronic conditions." Physical Therapy Reviews: (19 pages). Ahead of Print. DOI: 10.1080/10833196.2015.1133034 LINK 

Watson, T. and K. Lawrence (2016). Electrophysical Agents in Animal Physiotherapy. Ch 13 in : Animal Physiotherapy: Assessment, Treatment and Rehabilitation of Animals. C. McGowan and L. Goff. Chichester, Wiley Blackwell. 2nd Edition LINK

Roberts, S. E., Schreuder, F.M. Watson, T. and Stern, M. (2016). "Do COPD patients taught pursed lips breathing (PLB) for dyspnoea management continue to use the technique long-term? A mixed methodological study." Physiotherapy. (In Press). DOI : 10.1016/j.physio.2016.05.006 LINK

Watson, T. (2016). Elektrotherapie. In : Physiotherapie fur alle Korpersysteme: Evidenzbaser Tests und Therapie. Ed : F. E. van den Berg. Stuttgart, Thieme. ISBN : 9783131748218 : Chapter 1.5 LINK

 

Resources

Courses

Courses

A wide range of Electrotherapy Courses are delivered throughout the UK, Europe and Worldwide with varying content, aims and duration.

Books

Books

Current books on Electrotherapy with brief descriptions and links to Amazon pages for purchase.

FAQs: Prof. Tim Watson

FAQs: Prof. Tim Watson

Some common answers to the most frequently asked questions on Electrotherapy, particularly in the area of Contraindications.