Educational resources for practitioners, students and educators

The information on these pages is provided in good faith and should be treated as such. If you make use of the information, please acknowledge its source.

The International Society for Electrophysical Agents in Physical Therapy (ISEAPT) is a formal subgroup of the World Congress Physical Therapy (WCPT) and is the leading International organisation concerned primarily with Electro Physical Agents


  • iseapt on twitter
  • iseapt on facebook


The Electro Physical Agents and Diagnostic Ultrasound (EPADU) group is a Professional Networks of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy based in the UK.


Ultrasound therapy is just about the most popular of the Electrophysical agents (EPA's), though strictly speaking, it is not 'electrotherapy' even though it is widely referred to as an electrotherapy modality. 

There are several sections of the site that relate to ultrasound and I have divided them up to make navigation a bit easier.

Ultrasound therapy

The basics of the modality, what it does and how it works:

Ultrasound Dose Calculations

What it says on the label really - a review of how to work out an effective dose without needing a 'recipe' based approach. There is a simple 2 sided ultrasound dose calculation chart now available from the DOWNLOAD page if that helps.

Longwave (kilohertz) Ultrasound

Longwave (or kilohertz) ultrasound has been around for a good while now, but there is precious little out there in the literature that explains what it is, and how it differs for normal (MHz) ultrasound in terms of the physics and its effects. This brief explanation tried to summarise what we know about the modality.

Ultrasound for Fracture healing

Lots of new material around on the use of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) as an adjunct the fracture management (fresh fractures, delayed and non unions.

Ultrasound Gels and Coupling Agents

A summary of some of the recent work produced by our research unit and some of the ongoing work.

Ultrasound in the Treatment of Apomorphine Nodules

A summary of the current position with regards the use of therapeutic ultrasound in the treatment of Apomorphine nodules in patients with Parkinsons Disease - plus research update.

Ultrasound Gels and Coupling Agents

Ultrasound Therapy

Ultrasound Dose Calculation

Longwave (Kilohertz) Ultrasound Therapy

Ultrasound for Fracture Healing: Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound - LIPUS

Ultrasound in the Treatment of Apomorphine Nodules




A wide range of Electrotherapy Courses are delivered throughout the UK, Europe and Worldwide with varying content, aims and duration.



Current books on Electrotherapy with brief descriptions

FAQs: Prof. Tim Watson

FAQs: Prof. Tim Watson

Some common answers to the most frequently asked questions on Electrotherapy, particularly in the area of Contraindications.