Educational resources for practitioners, students and educators

The information on these pages is provided in good faith and should be treated as such. If you make use of the information, please acknowledge its source.

The International Society for Electrophysical Agents in Physical Therapy (ISEAPT) is a formal subgroup of the World Congress Physical Therapy (WCPT) and is the leading International organisation concerned primarily with Electro Physical Agents


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The Electro Physical Agents and Diagnostic Ultrasound (EPADU) group is a Professional Networks of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy based in the UK.

Electrical Stimulation for Wound Healing

There is a very substantial volume of published literature relating to many different forms of electrical stimulation utilised for the promotion of wound healing. The majority of this work has been done with chronic leg ulcers of various types and with pressure sores.

I have published several reviews on the subject muself, as have other people. In the first instance, I would suggest that these would make a sensible start point for those interested in the subject. My own work continues in this field and I will amplify the content of these pages at some point, but the key references below should help :

Watson, T. (2008) (Editor). Electrical Stimulation for Enhanced Wound Healing.
Chapter 19 in : Electrotherapy : Evidence Based Practice. Elsevier

Poltawski, L. and Watson, T. (2009). Bioelectricity and microcurrent therapy for tissue healing - a narrative review. Physical Therapy Reviews 14(2);104-114

Kloth, L. C. (2005). "Electrical stimulation for wound healing: a review of evidence from in vitro studies, animal experiments, and clinical trials." Int J Low Extrem Wounds 4(1): 23-44.


Watson, T. (1996). "Electrical Stimulation for Wound Healing." Physical Therapy Reviews 1: 89-103.

Ojingwa, J. C. and R. R. Isseroff (2003). "Electrical stimulation of wound healing." J Invest Dermatol 121(1): 1-12.

Ravaghi, H. et al. (2006). "Electromagnetic therapy for treating venous leg ulcers." Cochrane Database Syst Rev(2): CD002933.

Ramadan, A. et al. (2008). "Effect of low-intensity direct current on the healing of chronic wounds: a literature review." J Wound Care 17(7): 292-6.

Zhao, M. (2009). "Electrical fields in wound healing-An overriding signal that directs cell migration." Semin Cell Dev Biol 20(6): 674-82.

This is just a select few of the 8000 plus papers that I have in the database covering various aspects of this topic. A quick search on PubMed or other databases will soon find you plenty of material if you want it - or get hold of one of the above reviews and chase the cited references.




A wide range of Electrotherapy Courses are delivered throughout the UK, Europe and Worldwide with varying content, aims and duration.



Current books on Electrotherapy with brief descriptions

FAQs: Prof. Tim Watson

FAQs: Prof. Tim Watson

Some common answers to the most frequently asked questions on Electrotherapy, particularly in the area of Contraindications.