Educational resources for practitioners, students and educators

The information on these pages is provided in good faith and should be treated as such. If you make use of the information, please acknowledge its source.

The International Society for Electrophysical Agents in Physical Therapy (ISEAPT) is a formal subgroup of the World Congress Physical Therapy (WCPT) and is the leading International organisation concerned primarily with Electro Physical Agents


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The Electro Physical Agents and Diagnostic Ultrasound (EPADU) group is a Professional Networks of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy based in the UK.

COVID19 and Electrophysical Modality Research

There has been a range of research and hypothesis papers published in which various Electrophysical Modalities have been evaluated for their (potential) effect in the current COVID-19 situation

I have tried to provide the references below, grouped as best I can, and where possible, have linked to the journal or index page. Many of the papers are very recent and therefore do not yet have issues and page numbers allocated. So far as I can tell, they are all available as 'online first' papers.

If you are aware of other papers which might be useful for users of these pages, please do let me know

I make no recommendation by including the papers here, nor am I advocating the use  of the modality in question - I am just trying to provide all the COVID-19 related resources that I have identified in one place

Photobiomodulation / Light / Laser Therapy

Nejatifard, M. et al (2020) Probable positive effects of the photobiomodulation as an adjunctive treatment in COVID-19: A systematic review Cytokine 137: 155312 LINK

Pooam, M. et al (2021) Therapeutic application of light and electromagnetic fields to reduce hyper-inflammation triggered by COVID-19 Commun Integr Biol 14(1): 66 LINK

Moskvin, S. et al (2021) Low-Level Laser Therapy in Prevention of the Development of Endothelial Dysfunction and Clinical Experience of Treatment and Rehabilitation of COVID-19 Patients Rehabil Res Pract 2021: 6626932 LINK

Fekrazad, R. et al (2021) Photobiomodulation and Antiviral Photodynamic Therapy in COVID-19 Management Adv Exp Med Biol 1318: 517 LINK

Sigman, S. A. et al (2020) Adjunct low level laser therapy (LLLT) in a morbidly obese patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia: A case report Can J Respir Ther 56: 52 LINK

Sigman, S. A. et al (2020) A 57-Year-Old African American Man with Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia Who Responded to Supportive Photobiomodulation Therapy (PBMT): First Use of PBMT in COVID-19 Am J Case Rep 21: e926779 LINK

Mokmeli, S. and Vetrici, M. (2020) Low level laser therapy as a modality to attenuate cytokine storm at multiple levels, enhance recovery, and reduce the use of ventilators in COVID-19 Can J Respir Ther 56: 25 LINK

Jahani Sherafat, S. et al (2020) The Effectiveness of Photobiomudulation Therapy (PBMT) in COVID-19 Infection J Lasers Med Sci 11(Suppl 1): S23 LINK

Hanna, R. et al (2020) Phototherapy as a Rational Antioxidant Treatment Modality in COVID-19 Management; New Concept and Strategic Approach: Critical Review Antioxidants (Basel) 9(9) LINK


Stiller, P. and Schmitz, C. (2021) Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy to Support Breathing in Case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Case Report LINK


Tian, F. et al (2021) Efficacy and safety of short-wave diathermy treatment for moderate COVID-19 patients: a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical study Eur J Phys Rehabil Med LINK

Yu, H. P. et al (2020) Ultra-shortwave diathermy - a new purported treatment for management of patients with COVID-19 Physiother Theory Pract 36(5): 559 LINK

Nasb, M. et al (2020) The curative effects of shortwave diathermy on treating Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial Trials 21(1): 609 LINK

Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES)

Burgess, L. C. et al (2021) Effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the recovery of people with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit: A narrative review J Rehabil Med 53(3): jrm00164 LINK


Prada, F. et al (2020) Can Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Treat Discrete Pulmonary Lesions in Patients With COVID-19? J Ultrasound Med LINK






A wide range of Electrotherapy Courses are delivered throughout the UK, Europe and Worldwide with varying content, aims and duration.



Current books on Electrotherapy with brief descriptions

FAQs: Prof. Tim Watson

FAQs: Prof. Tim Watson

Some common answers to the most frequently asked questions on Electrotherapy, particularly in the area of Contraindications.